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Last updated: 1 April 2022

Here are some geography questions that pupils asked, and some resources to help understand the answers. Many of these resources are animations, videos, or other forms of visualization. These make it easier to understand.  Since the time available on the NCERT program is very limited, I have created this set of resources for you to uncover the answers to your geography questions.

In doing this, you will also learn geographical research and reasoning skills, rather than someone just giving you answers.

I hope these help. If you need further help, please do not hesitate to email me. I will whatever I can to help you.

Chandra Shekhar Balachandran
Founder, Director: The Institute of Geographical Studies

  • What are causes of warm day and night in Gilgit and chilling harsh day and night in Drass Kargil despite the former relatively located in higher altitude and in greater Himalayas as compared to the later?
    (Mehvish Fatima, class 8, Govt Model Middle School Pashkum Kargil Ladakh)

The weather and climate of a place are determined by a variety of factors.  Rather than giving you the answer, I invite you to uncover the answer for yourself. For this, you could use this downloadable book from this page: India Climographs. It will not directly answer your question, but will help you towards an answer. By doing this, you will learn important research and analytical skills in geography.

To help you with your search, use these two resources:

  1. The GoogleEarth view of Dras embedded below. This is an interactive map that you can explore. Zooming in or out, looking at all the information on the map, will help you develop your geographical observation skills, especially map-reading and reasoning.
  2. Examine the location features of Dras in this interactive map using the climatic controls information in the India Climographs book — latitude, altitude, etc.




  • Why does earth crust has tectonic plates? How do we says that tectonic plates collides with each other?
    (Kulsum Banoo, class 8, Govt Model Middle School Pashkum Kargil Ladakh).

There are many types of evidence to show the existence of tectonic plates. For example:

    • similar life-forms exist far away from each other.  These may be living or in fossils.
    • Similarities of landforms in distant parts of Earth show us that land masses have separate and / or colliding with each other.
    • The occurrence of fold mountains such as the Himalaya is another example.

Check out these resources for further exploration:

  • Here’s an excellent resource to answer your question.

Below are two more that could help you:


  • How Deserts are formed? How sands id deposited in deserts?
    (Geetanjali, Zilla Parishad High School, Janampet, Mahabub Nagar, Telangana)

      • Deserts are places where the potential evapotranspirate rate is greater than the precipitation rate.
      • Start with this video that gives a simple, animated explanation of how and where deserts are formed.

    • Read this well-written explanation that can also help you.
    • Desert sands are deposited by wind. Since flowing water is not available, winds do the work of transporting and depositing sands.

  • Why globe rotates from west to east and why it is tilted towards north?
    (Zeeshan Ali, class 6, Govt. Model Middle School Pashkum Kargil, Ladakh).

      • The rotation part of your question is addressed in the resources below. It is not clear what you mean by “tilted towards the north.”
      • Start with this resource:

      • Watch this Trippy Video of Earth’s Rotation From a New Perspective

      • Earth’s Rotation Visualized in a Timelapse of the Milky Way Galaxy – 4K


  • The sizes of continents and countries are distorted on world map.  When we are studying map and globe why these things are not mentioned in textbooks?
    (Prasoona, Tamil Nadu)

    • Why these things are not mentioned in the textbooks is a question for NCERT and those who design the curriculum, syllabus, and textbooks.
    • The sizes of continents and countries are distorted because all maps are distortions.
    • Depicting a round Earth (3-dimensional) in a flat form (2-dimensional) is called Projection.
    • Every projection has some kind of distortion (area, distance, shape). There is no 100% accurate map.
    • The most commonly seen projection is the Mercator Projection. In this, the accuracy of area and shape is best at the equator (0º). As you move away from 0º towards 90º N or S (the poles), everything gets exaggerated (see figure below)

Mercator distortions

Diagram showing how things get distorted in the Mercator projection. Click on the image for larger version.

    • Check out this interactive site to understand the true size of countries.
    • Start by clicking on “clear map” in the box on the top left.
    • Select the country you want to study, then drag it slowly towards the equator to see how its size changes. A fun way of understanding this is to bring the countries to the equator inside Africa. You will see the effects of the distortion.

  • Whether the dams are constructed for flood control or generation of hydel power or for irrigation?
    (Sheetal, Telangana, Hyderabad) for CBC.

    • Every dam is built for one or more of these purposes.  The uses of a dam vary based on geography and the local needs. One of these may be a primary use while others may secondary uses.

  • Why are some topics related to physics like energy from the sun are dealt with in social studies?
    Sheetal, Hyderabad, Telangana)

    • Earth is an energy system. It receives energy from Sun. All of Earth’s physical processes involve the processing and redistribution of that solar energy.
    • The amount and types of solar radiation that Earth receives is best understood through learning how physics works; particularly the branch of physics called thermodynamics.
    • For example: understanding climate and weather requires a good understanding of physics; likewise understanding the work of rivers, agriculture, nutrition, etc. all require good understanding of natural sciences (physics, chemistry, biology) and mathematics.
    • We study Earth as a part of social studies under Geography … therefore, we discuss these things in social studies.
    • Please remember that these boundaries of what is geography, science, etc. are artificial boundaries! WE created them just for convenience. Nature does not work with these boundaries!

  • How can we develop interest in different social sciences at a time?
    (Ajay Jha, SCERT, Delhi)

    • My response:
      • Take any example of any phenomenon on Earth. If you start asking questions about it, very soon you will find that different “disciplines” (or “subjects”) are involved in it. The Connections blog on this site is all about how things are interconnected.  You could start exploring there.
      • Current events are excellent hooks for this.
      • Also, asking pupils for what interests them and then diving into that topic to uncover the geography, politics, economics, etc. in that topic would be the best way to develop interest in social sciences.
      • In sum: (1) emphasize interconnections, and (2) explore examples from pupils’ lived experiences.


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